Its construction began in 1748, by order of the bishop Felipe Jose de Res Palacios; And is currently considered one of the most beautiful and sober religious buildings of the American Baroque. A good example of a Jesuit style.
It is dedicated to the Virgin, whose image is represented on the high altar. The cathedral underwent several reforms directed by the architect Pedro Medina during the eighteenth century, and in 1755 the chapel was built by the Cuban Lorenzo Camacho, to Our Lady of Loreto. The church was not converted into a cathedral until 1788.
The temple consists of three naves of almost square plant, and houses a total of eight lateral chapels.
The works of sculpture, goldsmiths, and those of the tabernacle were performed in Rome by Bianchini under the direction of the Spaniard Antonio Sola.
Behind the main altar are three fresco paintings by Guiseppe Perovani. The cathedral also houses a valuable picture of the pope preparing to say Mass, which has been in the temple since the fifteenth century.
The remains of Cristóbal Columbus rested in the central nave of this temple until 1898. In that same year they were transferred to Seville.